All posts by meledakyuk88

What Is Beauty?

Beauty is frequently defined as an aesthetic quality of things which makes these objects enjoyable to see. Such items include sunsets, landscapes, beautiful humans and creative works of art. Beauty, along with aesthetic sense, is perhaps the most important area of aesthetics, among the various branches of psychology. Aesthetic evaluation or assessment is a part of aesthetic education, and students in this program will need to examine how beauty relates to the five senses as well as other cognitive aspects.

In the early years of twentieth century aesthetics, there was a division between the science of beauty and the study of beauty. In this part of the century, art had already been increasing in popularity, especially with the French Revolution. The popularity of the painting process during this time was so great that artists were acclaimed for their work no matter what their personal ideology might be. This attitude of respecting the individual’s aesthetic sense led to the endorsement of the subjective idea of beauty by the late twentieth century. The twentieth century is known as the beauty era, and this age is associated with the idealism that started the movement for artistic freedom.

Modern aesthetic theory and research are based on the work of a number of artists who have expanded and deepened the ideas of beauty, in general. However, these ideas are not solely found within the art world. The definition of beauty has also been heavily influenced by social and cultural definitions.

The beauty ideologies of different cultures are influenced by notions of beauty that are held in common by all cultures. The beauty ideologies of different cultures are based on cultural norms of beauty, which include aspects such as beauty, proportion, symmetry, and form. It is not considered a given that beauty is purely subjective. Aesthetic theory suggests that beauty is influenced by the culture from which it derives, and that beauty standards among different cultures are not static but vary depending on the changing beauty ideals of each culture.

Each culture establishes its own beauty ideals, which vary from culture to culture, and even region to region, such that beauty is seen in different ways in different times. Beauty standards also differ based on class and status, and in some cases, even gender. Beauty then, is not defined in a vacuum as it is always influenced by the values, beliefs, and thoughts of each individual. Beauty is then seen as the subjective element of an aesthetic equation.

There are beauty realities, such as beauty in nature, beauty ideologies, and even a mixture of both, and beauty standards. Beauty is therefore not a one-size-fits-all concept. It is instead a highly individual concept that is shaped by each person based on his or her own understanding and definition of beauty. This definition is most definitely influenced by the individual’s own ideas about beauty, but beauty is certainly not defined.

Different Types of Sports for Kids and Parents of Children

sports

Different Types of Sports for Kids and Parents of Children

One of the most popular sports across the world is athletics. Being a sports fan is one of the most popular past times in the world. The most popular sports to watch and follow are American football, ice hockey, Australian Rules Football, American basketball, Australian rugby league, and professional tennis. As you can see there are a lot of different sports that you can follow.

Association football has been one of the most storied and traditional sports in the world. This game is played between two teams in a competition. In association football, two teams are designated to play each other. It is played in a neutral environment with both teams wearing the colors of the competing clubs. In association football there is a Grand Final along with a Championship title.

Another popular form of sports betting in the world is international league or cup games. It is an association football game played between two competing teams in a single nation. This is an amazing way to watch and participate in some high-level sports competitions. Most governing bodies for this sport have professional sports reporters who provide live reports on the action from a press box at the ground level.

A lot of people enjoy participating in physical activity sports such as running, wrestling, boxing, mixed martial arts, weightlifting, gymnastics, track and field, table tennis. There are a lot of governing bodies for these various sports. The International Federation of Professional Squash, the World Sports Council, the National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA), and the United States Olympic Committee all regulate these various sports. They set rules for the events, prize money, and eligibility for championships and awards.

Youth sports are a great opportunity for children to get involved in physical fitness activities. Youth sport leagues consist of age level teams where children can play competitive sports for both fun and exercise. Youth sport leagues offer a variety of physical fitness activities such as soccer, baseball, basketball, and softball. Some other popular youth sports include soccer, swim training, tae kwon do, table tennis, and cricket.

Today, there are many different sports and recreational activities for children of all ages. There are even sports that are gender specific such as beach volleyball and beach football. Because of the physical fitness and health benefits that playing a sport provides, more kids and parents are enticed to participate. With the increasing popularity of sports and recreation, it’s becoming increasingly important to teach kids about the importance of a balanced and healthy diet and exercise program. This is especially important for younger children who may not be ready for a structured daily exercise routine.

How to Enhance Your Well-Being Through Mind and Body Health

health

How to Enhance Your Well-Being Through Mind and Body Health

Health is a condition of physical, mental and emotional well-being where infirmity and illness are absent. Various definitions have been applied to the term over the years. The dictionary definition of health is, ‘exceeding the normal.’ It is important to realize that health is a concept that is not static but continues to change as technology and cultural values evolve. As a society we tend to value being healthy over being healthy but this definition does not reflect the reality of what we see in daily life.

One of the keys to good health is to have a balance of diet, exercise and sleep. Many people work in places where they are subjected to health problems such as poor air quality, noise, poor lighting and many other environmental factors that cause ill health and disease. The challenge for many people who work in such environments is how to maintain a good health status even when they are surrounded by health problems.

Some people suffer from mental health conditions such as depression and anxiety. Other people develop health conditions as a result of physical conditions such as heart disease or diabetes. People can develop serious illnesses such as cancer or serious mental disorders such as bipolar disorder or schizophrenia if they are exposed to a high level of stress. Stress is also known to increase the occurrence and severity of many health conditions.

According to modern research, a major contributor to the occurrence and severity of disease is the high level of stress that people experience every day. It is important to reduce or eliminate stress in our daily life. Exercise is an excellent method to reduce stress and improve your physical health. As the popular saying goes ‘an hour of mental exercise is worth a hundred hours of physical exercise.’

A combination of diet and exercise, combined with a positive concept of social well-being is the best way to improve your health. People who are healthy, happy and confident are more likely to be productive and well-organized than those who are suffering from physical illness or psychological disorders. They are also less likely to be involved in interpersonal conflicts and interpersonal violence. The healthier a person is physically and psychologically, the happier and more fulfilled they are likely to be in their everyday life.

If you want to be healthy and happy then you should consider changing the way you think about your body and your life in general. Remember to live your life in balance. Be committed to improving your physical health, but don’t neglect your mental health. The two go hand in hand and if you want to have a successful life, you should try and incorporate both of them into your lifestyle.

The Evolution of Gaming

In most games people either compete with the computer-controlled opponents, or with the real-life players, in other words, in virtual games. Virtual games are a great way of gaming, which results in monetary gain, or in other ways of winning. Different virtual games require different skills, aptitudes, mental facilities and learning skills. Some of them are first-person shooter games, which the gamer controls the character and the actions of the game; some are racing games, where the gamer drives a car and competes with the others in an environment full of obstacles, tracks and other factors. Shooting games are usually the more popular type of the games and have become a virtual craze in recent years.

games

Another popular type of the computer game-based console is the Wii, developed and marketed by Nintendo. It has a control system similar to that of a video game console, and games are generally for the younger people aged three and up. Some of the popular games produced for the Wii include, Wii Sports Resort, Nintendo DS, and Nintendo Wii Sports.

There are also several video games which are based on gambling systems like the slots, which require players to place their virtual currency in certain machines, hoping that they will make a hit and win something. Many video games now offer online-based gambling options, where the player can either participate in actual gambling or simply take on the virtual currency. These virtual currencies serve as incentives and bonuses for players, and thus, they are sought after by many players who seek monetary gain through in-game activities.

Video games are also divided into two main categories – those based on hardware and those based on digital games. Video games designed for the hardware of the game console can be downloaded for free. The software for these games is generally purchased, however. In the case of video games played on a computer, the player has the option to rent digital games from retailers. These are usually available at various websites, which often give special discounts on purchase or rental. For more specific information on video games, you can check out your local computer games store.

If you want to play video game consoles or digital games, you can find them in many retail outlets as well as on the Internet. Most major stores have a section devoted to video games sold in conjunction with other products. Online retailers like Amazon offer huge discounts for purchases made in bulk. You can also find great bundles offered by companies who produce both hardware and digital games sold together. The Wii console itself is the top seller in the home gaming industry, which means that you would do well to get one as a gift for someone this Christmas.

As more people become aware of the benefits of gaming, the industry grows. Eventually, games will replace most traditional forms of entertainment, including television, movies, and music. You can see how video games and steering wheels can go hand-in-hand for a long time to come.

Buddhist Socialism And Cambodia

What is Buddhist Socialism? And did it have any relevance to the Khmer Rouge?

Religious Socialism

Pretty much every religion has a variant that tries to combine the religious bit with the political bit. The leftist  of Colombia were even formed by a Priest. Then you have the extremely influential. In theory at least it was partly to make Islam and Socialism compatible. Then there is Christian Socialism, something that makes a lot of sense if you actually read the bible. Some have also argued that North Korea and its Juche ideology have been heavily influenced by Confucianism. Although if that is true, or indeed if Confucianism is a religion are open to debate. Which brings us to Buddhist Socialism.

What is Buddhist Socialism?

Buddhist Socialism as with all other “religious” socialism aims to marry the core tenets of the religion with the politics. Again and like many religions Buddhism does share a lot with socialism.

Both Buddhism and socialism seek to provide an end to suffering by analyzing its conditions and removing the main causes of said suffering.

Are there any famous Buddhist socialists?

The most famous Buddhist socialist was the heavily overrated Dalai Lama. What many people do not realize is that he was also an avid Marxist who initially got on well with Chairman Mao.

He has said the following for example;

Of all the modern economic theories, the economic system of Marxism is founded on moral principles, while capitalism is concerned only with gain and profitability. (…) The failure of the regime in the former Soviet Union was, for me, not the failure of Marxism but the failure of totalitarianism. For this reason I still think of myself as half-Marxist, half-Buddhis

Another very prominent Buddhist Socialist was a Mr Sihanouk, hence the reason for this article.

Was Sihanouk a Socialist?

This is a very interesting topic! We know that he was very good friends with socialist leaders, such as Kim Il-Sung and Chairman Mao. We also know that he was supported, both in and out of government by Socialist regimes. Again though this does not mean he was necessarily leftist.

Sihanouk also famoulsy talked a lot about but how much did he walk the walk? Particularly seeing as he was a head of a Kingdom. Although was seen with the “three princes” of Laos, it is possible to be royal and red.

Sangkum and Buddhist Socialism

In 1955 Sihanouk stepped down as King of Cambodia to lead the country under a one party system. Namely Sangkum.

Sangkum literally means Popular Socialist Community. It was described as a movement, rather than a political party. Although the semantics of not being able to join any other political party meant Sangkum was a political party.

As we know from “National Socialism” having socialist in your title doesn’t necessarily mean you are. Therefore how socialist were Sangkum? We will cover the inner-workings of Sangkum in a different article, but for all intents and purposes it existed as pro-Sihanouk big tent party.

There were though at least some policies that could be seen as socialist. Sihanouk famously reached out to a number of communist figures, such as  who served in his government. There were other future Khmer Rouge figures who also served under him. In fact it has been argued that the birth of the Khmer Rouge in 1960 was in part at least caused by a rift with those who supported collaboration with Sihanouk and those that did not.

Sihanouk and Buddhist Socialism

Sihanouk would coin various phrases such as Royal-Buddhist Socialism and Khmer Socialism, but they had little to do with actual socialism. In essence all Khmer Socialism tried to do was encourage the rich to give money to the poor. This whilst remaining a kingdom and trying to stay as neutral as possible during the Vietnam War. Both of which were to be failures.

The right’s view of Sihanouk

Whilst it is easy to look back and say Sihanouk was no socialist, that was not the opinion of the time. Whilst the Khmer Rouge are the most famous “rebels”, there was also the . The Khmer Blue believed that Sihanouk was turning Cambodia “communistic” and fought an insurgency against the regime. In 1969 they defected en-masse and in 1970 Sihanouk was overthrown in a sponsored coup by Lon Nol. So, in this respect he was certainly seen as too socialist by America. Although again that is hardly saying much.

The Khmer Rouge and Buddhist Socialism

There is much scholarly debate about whether the Khmer Rouge were communist, or even socialist. This is something we will delve into much later. They were certainly not Buddhist Socialists though. Democratic Kampuchea was officially an atheist state, with prominent Buddhist being killed by the regime. Monks were also forced to eat and drink against their dietary requirements and often in isolation.

Whatever the Khmer Rouge were though, lets say Polpotists, in some respects their hatred of religion heavily influenced how the Killing Fields played out.

The People’s Republic of Kampuchea

When Vietnam liberated Cambodia from the Khmer Rouge the Peoples Republic of Kampuchea was proclaimed. Officially at least it was on the Soviet/Vietnamese model, but with some differences.

Due to the harsh rule of the Khmer Rouge there was natural hesitance to things like collectivization and religious freedom and thus Buddhism were allowed again. In this respects perhaps those 10 years from 1979-1989 are perhaps the closest thing we have seen to Buddhist Socialism in practice.

Although today any vestiges of socialism in Cambodia are long gone, with the exception of the ruling.

Was The 1993 Cambodian Election A success?

Was the 1993 Cambodian election a success? History teaches us that it was, but what was the real story? In reality things were much more complex. At one stage Cambodia was almost split into three countries. We take a look at the facts.

It is amazing that whilst Cambodia is a mega tourist destination few know all that much about its history. Yeah people know about the Killing Fields (to an extent), but knowledge about the inner workings of the Khmer Rouge are scant when compared to say, the .

Peace in our time?

Another misconception is that peace was achieved in 1993. Now whilst it is true that things certainly got better after  the 1993 Cambodian election, it was to be a long way from peace. The Khmer Rouge were still running amok in their little and there was to be another almost full on civil war.

The 1993 Cambodian election

For all intents the 1993 elections were won by the Royalist FUNCINPEC. We will deal with the shit-show the aftermath of this result later. There are though some points to go over first!

Who was competing in the 1993 Cambodian Election?

were the Royalist party initially formed by King Sihanouk with assistance from North Korea. Just wait, things are still gonna get weirder. By the time of the elections in 1993, Sihanouk was no longer “leader” of FUNCINPEC, but kind of head of state of Cambodia. The party though was led by his son, namely Norodom Ranariddh. They had been aligned with the Khmer Rouge during the civil war (more than once).

Formerly the Peoples Revolutionary Party of Kampuchea but rebranded as the Cambodian Peoples Party and led by Hun Sen. They were the continuation of the government that had ousted the Khmer Rouge.

(BLDP). They were led by long-time Republican and former allies of the residence Son Sann. He had previously led the Khmer Peoples National Liberation Front. This was the 3rd most powerful fighting force in the Coalition Government of Democratic Kampuchea. They were both anti-communist and anti-Royalist.

The this was the rebranding of the  which had been a rebranding of the AKA the Khmer Rouge. They would eventually refuse to take part in elections and were to continue fighting from their own unrecognized state. More on that whole mess later.

Who won the 1993 Cambodian Election?

FUNCINPEC won 58 seats, the CPP 51, the BLDP 10 and the small 1 seat. The Khmer Rouge carried on doing their own thing in the 6% of the country still under their control.

So, FUNCINPEC had won the election, but it was a hung parliament. In theory they should be asked to form a government right? Well fun fact, no.

Where did Sihanouk fit into all this?

Sihanouk was head of the largely ceremonial Coalition Government known as the Supreme National Council. This is not to be confused with the former  Kampuchea, as this one included the CPP.

We will talk more about the SNC in another article, but the main problem was the SNC had no power.

Who was actually governing Cambodia at the time of the 1993 elections?

OK, so this is where things start to get all weird. were running Cambodia under the leadership of  , a UN diplomat. Whilst governing Cambodia Akashi had been tasked with setting up an election, which he did and disarming the militias, which he largely didn’t. At least certainly not the Khmer Rouge.

So UNTAC technically were running the country, the country was technically governed by the Supreme National Council and what of the CPP? The CPP were still realistically in charge of most of the military, police, media and organs of state. A three way “sharing” of power in Cambodia, except it wasn’t really shared.

The CPP disputes the election results

On learning of their defeat the CPP claimed the elections were rigged, something flatly denied by the UN. The UN quickly said the elections were “fine” and Akashi et all were desperate to flee the mess.

Hun Sen leader of the CPP suggested that Sihanouk take control as head of state of Cambodia and HEAD of government. Sihanouk agreed and suggested the CPP and FUNCINPEC share all ministries 50-50. This “offer’ was flatly rejected by, well everyone. Now for some context, remember the the son of Sihanouk was at this time the leader of the biggest party in parliament, BUT the leader of the opposition was to tell him to take over the state. Things were to get weirder still.

Sihanouk had more than one son….

Enter Norodom Chakrapong stage left. Norodom Chakrapong had been a military leader for FUNCINPEC during the struggle AGAINST the government of Kampuchea. Lets also remember that FUNCINPEC was the party of his brother and father. Lets move on.

Norodom Chakrapong warrants and indeed deserves his own article, something I shall provide in due course.

Norodom Chakrapong defects to the CPP

In one of the biggest coup’s even pulled off by The CPP he managed to get a royal son to defect to his formerly communist party. Said son had spent 10 years fighting his government militarily. He was directly given the title of deputy Prime-Minister for his move.

Why did he defect? It hard to look further than a desire for power, but he was known to still be in favor of his father, but instead hoping he would be a President of Cambodia, rather than a king.

Norodom Chakrapong and his 7 provinces secede from Cambodia

At the time Norodom Chakrapong was based in the east of Cambodia essentially controlling a number of provinces that bordered Vietnam. He was so the story goes enraged that the UN had “fixed” the election. He demanded all UN troops leave his area and ransacked offices of FUNCINPEC.

When you consider things this was quite a marked change of heart seeing as he had only left FUNCINPEC for the CPP one year before.

The Samdech Euv Autonomous Zone is declared

Sadly there is no award for rubbish country names, for if there was this would surely be in the running. On June 10th Norodom Chakrapong declared the Samdech Euv Autonomous Zone and everyone, well except the UN went nuts.

A hasty emergency meeting of the constituent assembly was called, but for 5 days at least it looked like Cambodia could be split three ways. Hun Sen it should be noted did not support this move in any way shape, or form, but the result was certainly not all that bad for him.

For Norodom Chakrapong this was to be the pinnacle of his political career, with further defections and failures being the net result of his later life

Why would Cambodia  have become 3 states?

The Khmer Rouge were already out in  playing country. They were yet to declare the equally catchy name of The Provisional Government of National Union and National Salvation of Cambodia , until 1994. They were at the time though still calling themselves Democratic Kampuchea. This would have left a rump  led by the CPP and King Sihanouk, with his son running another and the Khmer Rouge still in their area. A very strange state of affairs.

End result of the 1993 Cambodian Election

After the emergency session of the constituent assembly. At said meeting it was greed that there would be a power sharing agreement, whereby the CPP and FUNCINPEC would share power 50-50. Remember that deal? The same one everyone had refused before?

By the making this deal the east decided they would not be their own country and Cambodia was to live happily ever after? Again, not quite. The UN though were certainly happy enough and beat a hasty retreat from the country.

Sihanouk remained in charge for another 3 months before stepping down as “Head of Government” On September 21st 1993. On the 23rd of September he was again aimed king. The Kingdom of Cambodia with Sihanouk at the forefront 2.0 was to begin.

The 1997 Civil War in Cambodia

Officially this period has many names from clashes to the “coup”. Neither is correct, this was for all intents a civil war, one which had a winner and loser. the 1993 power-sharing agreement was supposed to ward off civil war, all it actually did was delay it. tensions simmered for 4 years before both sides whilst courting the Khmer Rouge entered into open warfare.

This was to last 3 months before the forces of the CPP pushed FUNCIPEC into the north of Cambodia and again into an unholy alliance with the Khmer Rouge. The CPP won the war and have been in power since. Some look back on 1997 as coup. It was not, it was an inevitable battle that had a winner and loser.

There was a coalition after the 1998 election, but for all intents this was pretty much the end of the opposition as a force. Ironically this “final battle” also led to the end of the Khmer Rouge and since then the longest period of stability in the recent history of the country. The government might have its detractors, but stability is stability

Was the 1993 election a success?

There were a few success, but n all honesty numerous failures. The success was that 1993 Cambodia was more peaceful than 1992 Cambodia, they had a king again.

The failures of the UN though were immense. Failure to disarm the Khmer Rouge meant they remained a fighting force. Creating, or allowing the dual-government meant that both sides would need to court the Khmer Rouge. This meant that many senior leaders ended up defecting to various sides and getting Royal Pardons.

By the time they started to arrest people for war crimes most had either died, went senile, or were close to death. They had all for the most part also enjoyed their retirement years in not only freedom, but relative riches when compared to the peasants they had “stood for”. being a huge case in point here.

Thus the 1993 Cambodian elections were a means to an end. They and UNTAC though created far more problems than they should have. This was the only time the UN has taken over sovereignty of a country, which by looks of things is probably for the best.

Pros And Cons Of Gaming

gaming

Pros And Cons Of Gaming

Gaming is one of the most exciting things that you can do, especially when you get to play with your friends or family in a friendly environment. It is even more fun when you do it in a large room and have a number of people. Gaming has been known to stimulate your thinking and help you relax. With the ever increasing popularity of video gaming, more people are trying their hand at playing games.

There are a lot of advantages that you can get from playing online games. For starters, they do not require you to be particularly good at anything. You will also be able to find several games that are free, which is great news for everybody. Online gaming has been a great experience for a lot of people.

There are certain factors that you need to keep in mind when you are using a computer to play games. First of all, make sure that you are in a safe environment. Playing any type of game on the internet can be dangerous if you are not cautious. Hackers are always on the lookout for websites to steal credit card information. So, if you do not want to get scammed, you should look into the security features that the game has.

You should also make sure that your internet connection is secure. Most of the time, you will be required to download a small amount of files before the game can be played. Therefore, your internet connection should be fast so that these files can be downloaded quickly. If there are problems with your connection, you might encounter problems while playing the game.

Online gaming is a fun way of having fun. Most games are very easy to understand and have an interesting storyline. The graphics are also quite good. Another great thing about playing games online is that you can play as long as you like. This means that you can also choose to stop playing at any point of time, so you do not have to worry about how long a game is.

There are many benefits of online gaming. However, you should also know how to protect yourself from malicious people who are out to get credit card information or ruin someone’s game. Online gaming is a fun way to spend time, but it also requires some precautions.

There are a lot of risks involved with playing games online. Hackers can gain access to your personal information such as credit card numbers and bank account details. This is a huge risk, as you never know when your financial information could be misused. Online gaming sites are often monitored by hackers. Therefore, you should be very careful while playing online.

You should also make sure that you do not download games from illegal websites. Many illegal sites are out to get your personal details. They can then use these details to sell them to marketing companies. Therefore, if you want to play safe, stick to legitimate websites.

Cambodia – Vietnam War

The Cambodia – Vietnam War (Khmer: សង្គ្រាមកម្ពុជា-វៀតណាម, Vietnamese: Chiến tranh Campuchia–Việt Nam), known in Vietnam as the Counter-offensive on the Southwestern border (Vietnamese: Chiến dịch Phản công Biên giới Tây-Nam), and by Cambodian nationalists as the Vietnamese invasion of Cambodia (Khmer: ការឈ្លានពានរបស់វៀតណាមមកកម្ពុជា), was an armed conflict between the former allies of Khmer Rouge state of Democratic Kampuchea and the Socialist Republic of Vietnam.

The war began after frequent border skirmishes and attacks from the Kampuchean Revolutionary Army on its border with Vietnam. It was also in response to numerous massacres of those of Vietnamese ancestry. The war occurred merely a few years after the two nations had been firms  for socialism and against American Imperialism.

On December 25th 1978 the Vietnamese launched a full scale invasion of Democratic Kampuchea. The Chinese advised the Khmer Rouge to seek peace negotiations, whilst the Khmer Rouge asked for Chinese military support, neither of which were to occur.

It took the Vietnamese forces, aided by many Khmer Rouge cadres worried by the the rule of Pol Pot just two weeks to overrun the Khmer Rouge.

On January 8th 1979 the capital of Phnom Penh had been taken and the beginnings of what would become the largely unrecognized Peoples Republic of Kampuchea and an ongoing civil war, with the China and USA supporting the now rebel Khmer Rouge.

The civil war would continue until 1998 in some way shape, or form. Vietnamese troops would remain in the country for s further 10 years.

In 1993 peace was largely restored (although not with the Khmer Rouge) and after a brief spell as the , the Kingdom of Cambodia with King Sihanouk as head of state was reintroduced.

The affects of the war between Vietnam and Cambodia are multi-faceted. Whilst they ended the tyrannical regime of Pol Pot, they also turned Cambodia into a Cold War proxy and led to the Khmer Rouge continuing to cause pain and suffering in the areas that they still controlled. It also turned Cambodia into one of the most land mined countries on earth, a legacy that still kills and maims people every year.

It also directly led to the punitive invasion of Vietnam by in February of 1979, in a short conflict that both sides were to claim victory in.

The Constitution Of Democratic Kampuchea

What was the Constitution of Democratic Kampuchea? Being based in Cambodia has led us to learn a lot about the carnage that occurred during the rule of the Khmer Rouge and . This era gets explained in many different ways, but it can be summarized by the what they renamed the country.

Democratic Kampuchea despite emptying the whole population into the countryside and plunging the country into absolute anarchy was not only the recognized government by the international community (and duly supported by China and the USA no less), but was a functioning state to some degree.

In was in this context that a command group meeting in Phnom Penh from 15 to 19 December 1975, the text of the Constitution was adopted. It was duly put into force  on 5 January 1976.

Ins some respects it is very similar to a standard communist constitution, but with the ability of hindsight to the horrors of the regime, certain parts such as freedom of religion and private property become even more alarming.

To read about the legacy of the Khmer Rouge.

The Constitution of Democratic Kampuchea

We have thus reprinted the English translation in full of constitution of Cambodia during the Khmer Rouge, or as you could call it the Khmer Rouge constitution.

 Preamble

On the basis of the sacred and fundamental desires of the people, workers, peasants, and other labourers as well as those of the fighters and cadres of the Kampuchean Revolutionary Army; and

Whereas a significant role has been played by the people, especially the workers, poor peasants, the lower middle peasantry, and other strata of labourers in the countryside and cities, who account for more than ninety-five percent of the entire Kampuchean nation, who assumed the heaviest responsibility in waging the war for the liberation of the nation and the people, made the greatest sacrifices in terms of life, property, and commitment, served the front line relentlessly, and unhesitatingly sacrificed their children and husbands by the thousands for the fight on the battlefield;

Whereas great sacrifices have been borne by the three categories of the Kampuchean Revolutionary Army who fought valiantly, day and night, in the dry and rainy season, underwent all sorts of hardship and misery, shortages of food, medicine, clothing, ammunition, and other commodities in the great war for the liberation of the nation and the people;

Whereas the entire Kampuchean people and the entire Kampuchean Revolutionary Army desire an independent, unified, peaceful, neutral, non-aligned, sovereign Kampuchea enjoying territorial integrity, a national society informed by genuine happiness, equality, justice, and democracy without rich or poor and without exploiters or exploited, a society in which all live harmoniously in great national solidarity and join forces to do manual labour together and increase production for the construction and defence of the country;

And whereas the resolution of the Special National Congress held on 25, 26 and 27 April 1975 solemnly proclaimed recognition and respect for the above desires of the entire people and the entire Kampuchean Revolutionary Army

The Constitution of Kampuchea states

Chapter One

The State

Article 1 The State of Kampuchea is an independent, unified, peaceful, neutral, non-aligned, sovereign, and democratic State enjoying territorial integrity.

The State of Kampuchea is a State of the people, workers, peasants, and all other Kampuchean labourers.

The official name of the State of Kampuchea is “Democratic Kampuchea”.

Chapter Two

The Economy

Article 2 All important general means of production are the collective property of the people’s State and the common property of the people’s collectives.

Property for everyday use remains in private hands.

Chapter Three

Culture

Article 3 The culture of Democratic Kampuchea has a national, popular, forward-looking, and healthful character such as will serve the tasks of defending and building Kampuchea into an ever more prosperous country.

This new culture is absolutely opposed to the corrupt, reactionary culture of the various oppressive classes and that of colonialism and imperialism in Kampuchea.

Chapter Four

The Principle of Leadership and Work

Article 4 Democratic Kampuchea applies the collective principle in leadership and work.

Chapter Five

Legislative Power

Article 5 Legislative power is invested in the representative assembly of the people, workers, peasants, and all other Kampuchean labourers.

This Assembly shall be officially known as the “Kampuchean People’s Representative Assembly”.

The Kampuchean People’s Representative Assembly shall be made up of 250 members, representing the people, the workers, peasants, and all other Kampuchean labourers and the Kampuchean Revolutionary Army. Of these 250, there shall be:

Representing the peasants 150

Representing the labourers and other working people 50

Representing the revolutionary army 50

Article 6 The members of the Kampuchean People’s Representative Assembly are to be elected by the people through direct and prompt general elections by secret ballot to be held throughout the country every five years.

Article 7 The People’s Representative Assembly is responsible for legislation and for defining the various domestic and foreign policies of Democratic Kampuchea.

Chapter Six

The Executive Body

Article 8 The administration is a body responsible for executing the laws and political lines of the Kampuchean People’s Representative Assembly.

The administration is elected by the Kampuchean People’s Representative Assembly and must be fully responsible to the Kampuchean People’s Representative Assembly for all its activities inside and outside the country.

Chapter Seven

Justice

Article 9 Justice is administered by people’s courts, representing and defending the people’s justice, defending the democratic rights and liberties of the people, and condemning any activities directed against the people’s State or violating the laws of the people’s State.

The judges at all levels will be chosen and appointed by the People’s Representative Assembly.

Article 10 Actions violating the laws of the people’s State are as follows:

Dangerous activities in opposition to the people’s State must be condemned to the highest degree.

Other cases are subject to constructive re-education in the framework of the State’s or people’s organisations.

Chapter Eight

The State Presidium

Article 11 Democratic Kampuchea has a State Presidium chosen and appointed by the Kampuchean People’s Representative Assembly once every five years.

The State Presidium is responsible for representing the State of Democratic Kampuchea inside and outside the country in keeping with the Constitution of Democratic Kampuchea and with the laws and political lines of the Kampuchean People’s Representative Assembly.

The State Presidium is composed as follows: a president, a first vice-president, and a second vice-president.

Chapter Nine

The Rights and Duties of the Individual

Article 12 Every citizen of Kampuchea enjoys full rights to a constantly improving material, spiritual, and cultural life.

Every citizen of Democratic Kampuchea is guaranteed a living.

All workers are the masters of their factories.

All peasants are the masters of the rice paddies and fields.

All other labourers have the right to work.

There is absolutely no unemployment in Democratic Kampuchea.

Article 13 There must be complete equality among all Kampuchean people in an equal, just, democratic, harmonious, and happy society within the great national solidarity for defending and building the country together.

Men and women are fully equal in every respect.

Polygamy is prohibited.

Article 14 It is the duty of all to defend and build the country together in accordance with individual ability and potential.

Chapter Ten

The Capital

Article 15 The capital city of Democratic Kampuchea is Phnom Penh.

Chapter Eleven

The National Flag

Article 16 The design and significance of the Kampuchean national flag are as follows:

The background is red, with a yellow three-towered temple in the middle.

The red background symbolises the revolutionary movement, the resolute and valiant struggle of the Kampuchean people for the liberation, defence, and construction of their country.

The yellow temple symbolises the national traditions of the Kampuchean people, who are defending and building the country to make it ever more prosperous.

Chapter Twelve

The National Emblem

Article 17 The national emblem consists of a network of dikes and canals, which symbolise modern agriculture, and factories, which symbolise industry. These are framed by an oval garland of rice ears, with the inscription “Democratic Kampuchea” at the bottom.

Chapter Thirteen

The National Anthem

Article 18 The national anthem of Democratic Kampuchea is the “Dap Prampi Mesa Chokchey” [“Glorious Seventeenth of April”].

Chapter Fourteen

The Kampuchean Revolutionary Army

Article 19 The three categories of the Kampuchean Revolutionary Army—regular, regional, and guerrilla—form an army of the people made up of men and women fighters and cadres who are the children of the labourers, peasants, and other Kampuchean working people. They defend the State power of the Kampuchean people and of independent, unified, peaceful, neutral, non-aligned, sovereign, and democratic Kampuchea, which enjoys territorial integrity, and at the same time they help to build a country growing more prosperous every day to improve and develop the people’s standard of living.

Chapter Fifteen

Worship and Religion

Article 20 Every citizen of Kampuchea has the right to worship according to any religion and the right not to worship according to any religion.

Reactionary religions which are detrimental to Democratic Kampuchea and Kampuchean people are absolutely forbidden.

Chapter Sixteen

Foreign Policy

Article 21 Democratic Kampuchea fervently and earnestly desires to maintain close and friendly relations with all countries sharing a common border and with all those near and distant throughout the world in conformity with the principles of mutual and absolute respect for sovereignty and territorial integrity.

Democratic Kampuchea adheres to a policy of independence, peace, neutrality and non-alignment. It will permit absolutely no foreign country to maintain military bases on its territory and is resolutely opposed to all forms of outside interference in its internal affairs, and to all forms of subversion and aggression against Democratic Kampuchea from outside, whether military, political, cultural, social, diplomatic, or humanitarian.

Democratic Kampuchea refuses all intervention in the domestic affairs of other countries, and scrupulously respects the principle that every country is sovereign and entitled to manage and decide its own affairs without outside interference.

Democratic Kampuchea remains absolutely within the great family of non-aligned nations.

Democratic Kampuchea strives to promote solidarity with the peoples of the Third World in Asia, Africa, and Latin America, and with peace- and justice-loving people the world over, and to contribute most actively to mutual aid and support in the struggle against imperialism, colonialism, neo-colonialism, and in favour of independence, peace, friendship, democracy, justice, and progress in the world.

What Is Beauty?

Beauty is widely defined as a subjective feeling of aesthetic qualities that make these objects aesthetically pleasing to see. These objects include sunsets, natural landscapes, humans and artistic works of art. Beauty, along with individual beauty, is the most important topic of aesthetics, among the various branches of psychology. It encompasses the whole range of human feelings, inclinations and attitudes toward objects, including colors, forms, and space. The most famous aestheticianpieces include Vincent Van Gogh, Pablo Picasso, and Edvard Munch.

beauty

In the early part of the twentieth century, there were many eminent philosophers who spoke of beauty. But, as times changed, other philosophers came up with different definitions of beauty. They included the following: aesthetic beauty, the beauty of nature, the beauty of the form, and beauty in the sense of proportion. According to them, every beautiful object is perfectly symmetrical in form. Every beautiful face has a similar nose, a similar mouth and an equal amount of hair. In addition, there should be harmony in the skin and the contours of the body.

According to them, beauty is a certain attitude with which we regard beauty – a certain inner quality that we think in ourselves. Aesthetics as the two branches of science, are related in such a way that beauty – the subjective attitude – is the end product of beauty, or, to be more precise, of beauty with its source in the mind. Thus, beauty is thought to be the realization of man’s physical and emotional being.

Aesthetics are closely related to psychology, in the sense that both enhance the personal power and emotional well-being. In fact, aesthetics play a decisive role in the making or breaking up of a relationship. Aesthetics and psychology complement each other and beauty products – cosmetics, clothes, cosmetics, etc – aid in achieving these goals. Beauty products are even used by some psychologists for their own benefit – for example, some psychologists claim that beauty – the way one dresses – is a key determinant of health.

Aesthetics have become an essential part of many people’s life. For instance, some people will go to almost any extent to ensure that they look presentable and well groomed. Some will spend huge amounts of money on beauty products. Others will even go to the extent of having plastic surgery for achieving the desired looks. The concept of beauty has become a very vague term, as it has been commercialized into a complex and varied image of varying qualities.

Today, the market is flooded with beauty products of different kinds. A number of manufacturers have entered the market, claiming to sell the best and most affordable beauty products. It is difficult to differentiate between the genuine products and the fakes, so people often get confused as to which to buy. A number of myths and misinformation surround the issue of beauty. A brief discussion below highlights the points on how to identify and buy the best beauty products.